| In Recent ten years chitosan has been widely used in medicine, cosmetics and biologically active supplements (BAS) production.|
The use of chitosan in BAS is determined by its ability to bind lipids, which gave grounds to use BAS as a slimming device.
However, recently special attention of pharmacists, dietitians and cosmetologists in Japan has been captured by a highly functional preparation derived from chitosan - water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide. Since chitosan oligosaccharide is a low molecular chitosan, it is obtained by chitosan transformation under the action of enzymes:
A great many are of the opinion that chitosan is a highly functional preparation, but in fact, it is chitosan oligosaccharide that has a wide range of activity.
Human organism is unable to transform chitosan into low-molecular oligosaccharide. It has turned out that hydrochloric acid in the stomach does not hydrolyze chitosan. When passing through the gastrointestinal tract, chitosan swells and forms fat acid salts. Digestive enzymes, mainly pancreatic lipase, partly hydrolyze chitosan but to a very small extent.
The investigations of south-Korean scientists showed that oligosaccharide application provides a much greater decrease of lipids and cholesterol as compared to the analogous application of chitosan.
At the same time chitosan is not an absolutely safe preparation because it promotes removal of such essential elements as forum, magnesium, calcium from the body.
Chitosan ingestion by weak elderly people, expectant mothers, patients suffering from anemia or children may result in fatal consequences while chitosan oligosaccharide promotes assimilation of most elements.
Oligosaccharide application prevents accumulation of fat cells in internal organs, in particular, in kidneys after alcohol intake. Oligosaccharides significantly prevent negative impact of the alcohol on the liver.
Oligosaccharide plays a remarkable role in the liver function control preventing growth of alcoholic hepatosis. There is no medicine for alcoholic hepatosis treatment.
Observations show that chitosan oligosaccharide application leads to the increase of body resistance to diseases and environmental changes.
For instance, when a patient susceptible to catarrhal diseases uses chitosan oligosaccharide the danger of taking a cold decreases significantly for about two weeks after using the preparation. And the observed symptoms of a starting disease disappear after a nights sleep.
Chitosan oligosaccharide activates lactic-acid bacteria to a greater extent than vegetable oligosaccharides. At the same time it suppresses growth of common bacteria. More over, absorption of the preparation by the digestive tract stimulates liver function.
Chitosan possesses the ability to sorb heavy metals being unassimilated by the body that may lead to serious problems connected with dietary balance (alimentation balance).
Unlike chitosan, chitosan oligosaccharide is well assimilated by the body, and besides it has the ability to accelerate assimilation of the basic microelements such as calcium, ferrum etc.
Respectively, oligosaccharide application permits to solve alimentation problems connected with the deficiency of microelements.
Chitosan absorbs fat, but since chitosan is not assimilated by the body it can remove fat from the stomach or intestine only, while chitosan oligosaccharide is able to remove even lipoprotein from blood vessels as well.
Chitosan oligosaccharide perfectly removes cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein from blood vessels; therefore chitosan oligosaccharide ingestion by patients suffering from hyperglycemia can give extremely good results.
It is well known that when a person grows old a gradual narrowing of blood vessels occurs. It results in worsening of blood circulation that causes the increase of arterial blood pressure. As a rule it leads to vessel atrophy. Chitosan oligosaccharide removes fat accumulations and cholesterol from blood vessels of the body. That leads to dilation of blood vessels. Thus, finally, chitosan oligosaccharide possesses the ability to prevent any heart diseases connected with the redundant amount of fat or cholesterol in blood vessels. Investigations show that chitosan oligosaccharide application to elderly people suffering from poor blood circulation results in gradual disappearance of the feeling of coldness and pricking in the extremities.
Hence, we may draw a conclusion that chitosan oligosaccharide contributes much to prevention and subsequent treatment of hypertonia and vessel atrophy.
Salt and cholesterol turn to be some of the reasons, which cause hypertonia. Chlorine ions may cause hypertonia to a grater degree than ions of sodium.
Chitosan oligosaccharide is cation-active and therefore it may be combined with chlorine ions located in blood vessels. It removes chlorine ions contained in blood vessels from the body. Hence it follows that the natural preparation of chitosan oligosaccharide may promote solution of different problems which hither to have been difficult to solve.
In the form of BAS chitosan oligosaccharide may be used alone as well as in composition with other biologically active substances (vitamins, succinic acid, various plant extracts, taurine etc.)
Effectiveness of BAS based on chitosan oligosaccharide.
1. Decrease of cholesterol level
2. Eliminating of liver fat (hepatosis)
3. Immunity activation
4. Liver function activation
5. Decreasing of blood sugar concentration
6. Anticancer activity
7. Preventing and treatment of arterial hypertension
8. Preventing of diarrhea and constipation
Common chitosan possessing a high molecular weight dissolves in acidic media, which significantly hampers its application in cosmetology.
Since chitosan oligosaccharide is well-soluble in water and possesses wound healing effect, bacteriostatic activity and water retaining ability, it is feasible to use it for creating novel makeup preparations (creams, hair sprays, lipsticks, mascara, lotions, shampoos, conditioners, after-shave preparations etc.)
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